GENERAL GYNECOLOGICAL CARE

Pelvic Pain

Pelvic Inflammatory Infection

Menorrhagia

Amenorrhea/Absence of Menstruation

Cervical Dysplasia

Vulvodynia

Yeast Infection

Endometriosis

Vaginitis

Ovarian Cysts

Uterine Fibroids

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

Genital Herpes

Gonorrhea

Syphilis

Clamydia

Cancer of the Cervix

Cancer of the Ovary

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Pap Smear

Contraception Methods

Urine incontinence and frequency

Botox

Urgent PC


Pelvic Pain

Female pelvic pain is classified as pain below the belly button lasting longer than 6 months. The pain can range from dull to sharp, from mild to severe, and may come and go or be constant. It is usually a symptom of another condition. Pelvic pain can be a result of several different causes, many of which can be successfully treated. A pelvic ultrasound, MRI, or CT scan may be performed to evaluate.

Pelvic Inflammatory Infection

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the reproductive organs in women usually caused by the same sexually transmitted bacteria that causes gonorrhea and chlamydia. PID spreads from the vagina to the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes and can lead to infertility or complications during pregnancy.

PID is almost always accompanied by a sexually transmitted disease and can develop after having unprotected sex, especially with more than one partner. Bacteria can sometimes enter the vagina from inserting an IUD, childbirth, miscarriage or abortion. Women under the age of 25 are most often affected. Most cases of PID can be treated with antibiotics. More severe cases may require hospitalization or even surgery. PID can often be prevented by practicing safe sex.

Menorrhagia

Heavy menstrual bleeding is a common problem that most women experience at some point in their life. Excessive menstrual bleeding on a regular basis is classified as a condition called menorrhagia, which can cause troubling symptoms. If conservative methods are unsuccessful, surgery may be required to treat menorrhagia, including dilation and curettage, endometrial ablation and hysterectomy.

Amenorrhea/Absence of Menstruation

Amenorrhea is a condition that involves the absence of menstrual periods. Some women may never start having a period, while others may stop suddenly. While amenorrhea is a symptom and not a disease, it can be worrisome for many women. But this condition can usually be treated by identifying and treating the underlying cause.

Cervical Dysplasia

Cervical dysplasia refers to abnormal cell growth on the outside of the cervix. While cervical dysplasia itself is not necessarily cancerous, it is considered precancerous. Cervical dysplasia usually appears with no noticeable symptoms, remaining unnoticed until a gynecological examination is done. Severe cases of cervical dysplasia may require cryosurgery, electrocauterization, or the LEEP procedure to remove the abnormal growth.

Vulvodynia

Vulvodynia is classified as chronic vulvar pain or discomfort, including burning, stinging, irritation or rawness of the female genitalia. The word "vulvodynia" actually means "painful vulva." This condition can severely impact the quality of life for affected women and may prohibit participation in sexual activity, physical exercise and even social activities. Treatment for vulvodynia does not cure the condition, but instead helps to relieve symptoms.

Yeast Infection

A vaginal yeast infection is a common condition that affects over 75 percent of women at least once in their life, caused by a fungus called Candida albicans. While this type of fungus exists naturally in the vagina, too much of it can cause a vaginal infection. A yeast infection causes itching, burning, redness and irritation in the vaginal area, as well as a white discharge that looks similar to cottage cheese and pain during sexual intercourse.

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a medical condition in women in which the uterine lining (endometrium) moves out of the uterus and into other parts of the pelvic area such as the ovaries, bowels or behind the uterus. This condition affects about five million women in the US and is one of the most common health problems. It is generally not a serious or harmful condition, but can be painful and may interfere with your daily life. Endometriosis can be diagnosed through an ultrasound or MRI. There is no cure for the disease, but symptoms can be treated depending on their type and severity. Talk to your doctor today if you think you may be experiencing endometriosis.

These symptoms can be continuous or may come and go throughout the course of the period. Most women experience the worst symptoms 24 hours after the start of the period, and ending after two days.

Vaginitis

Vaginitis is a common inflammation of the vagina that causes itching, pain and discharge. Patients may develop this condition as a result of a change in the vaginal bacteria levels or from a yeast infection or sexually-transmitted infection. Women who have new or multiple sex partners, use an intrauterine device, have diabetes or experience hormonal changes may be at an increased risk for developing vaginitis.

Ovarian Cysts

An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac found on the ovaries, which are the organs that produce eggs and female hormones and affect our body's appearance, menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The eggs that are produced each month are grown in tiny sacs called follicles. After these sacs release the egg, they dissolve and then turn into corpus luteum which produces hormones.

Functional cysts can form from these empty sacs and cause them to grow rather than dissolve. These cysts form from the follicle or the corpus luteum, but both disappear within a few months. They are rarely cancerous but can cause mild symptoms. While some ovarian cysts don't cause any symptoms, others may experience: pressure, swelling or pain in the abdomen, pelvic pain, pain during sex, weight gain, abnormal bleeding, nausea or vomiting

Ovarian cysts can usually be diagnosed during routine pelvic exams. An ultrasound or blood test may also be used to determine the size and type of the cyst. Many cysts will go away on their own, so initial treatment may just be to wait and see if the size changes. Surgery to remove the cyst may be performed in those that do not change or cause pain. If you think you have a cyst, schedule a pelvic exam right away.

Uterine Fibroids

Fibroids, also known as myoma, are tumors that grow in the uterine walls. They are usually benign but can range in size and quantity. Uterine fibroids are most common in women in their 40s and early 50s. The cause of fibroids is unknown, but they may be affected by hormones and genetics. Most fibroids do not turn into cancer, but can lead to pregnancy complications. In many cases, women do not experience symptoms from fibroids. Treatment may not be necessary for these cases. Other women may experience: heaving bleeding, feeling of fullness, enlargement of abdomen, lower back pain, pain during sex, frequent urination

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a type of virus that causes genital warts. There are more than 100 different kinds of HPV, many of which can create a higher risk for cervical cancer. While some types can cause genital warts, others will show no symptoms but will eventually lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina and anus.

The virus is often contracted through sexual contact, as well as from a pregnant woman to her child during delivery, and affects over 20 million people in the US, with an estimated six million people becoming infected each year. It is estimated that at least half of all sexually active people will have HPV at some point in their lives.

Fortunately, many types of HPV can be successfully treated, while others can be managed to help patients prevent complications such as cervical cancer. Our doctors are experienced in treating all types of HPV to help restore patients back to health and help them maintain their normal life .

Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease that affects up to one out of every five adolescents and adults in the US. Patients may acquire herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2), most often as a result of sexual contact with a partner who is infected. This long-term infection often causes sores on the genitals, mouth or lips, and may be transmitted through genital-genital or genital-oral contact.

While herpes cannot be cured, there are several treatment options available to relieve symptoms and reduce emotional distress. Patients can still engage in sexual relationships without infecting their partner. Our doctors understand your worries and frustrations in dealing with herpes and other STDs, and can provide effective, compassionate care so that you can live a happy, healthy life.

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is a contagious disease transmitted most often through sexual contact with an infected. Gonorrhea may also be spread by contact with infected bodily fluids, so that a mother could pass on the infection to her newborn during childbirth. Both men and women can get gonorrhea. The infection is easily spread and occurs most often in people who have many sex partners. Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a bacterium that can grow and multiply easily in mucus membranes of the body.

Syphilis

Syphilis is a highly contagious disease spread primarily by sexual activity, including oral and anal sex. Although this disease is spread from sores, the vast majority of those sores go unrecognized. The infected person is often unaware of the disease and unknowingly passes it on to his or her sexual partner. Pregnant women with the disease can spread it to their baby. This disease, called congenital syphilis, can cause abnormalities or even death to the child. Syphilis cannot be spread by toilet seats, door knobs, swimming pools, hot tubs, bath tubs, shared clothing, or eating utensils. People with primary syphilis will develop one or more sores. The sores are usually small painless ulcers. They occur on the genitals or in or around the mouth somewhere between 10-90 days (average three weeks) after exposure. Even without treatment they heal without a scar within six weeks.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. This infection is easily spread because it often causes no symptoms and may be unknowingly passed to sexual partners. It is not easy to tell if you are infected with chlamydia since symptoms are not always apparent. But when they do occur, they are usually noticeable within one to three weeks of contact. A swab to take a sample from the cervix in women and then send the specimen to a laboratory to be analyzed. If you have chlamydia, your doctor will prescribe oral antibiotics, usually azithromycin (Zithromax) or doxycycline. Your doctor will also recommend your partner(s) be treated to prevent reinfection and further spread of the disease. With treatment, the infection should clear up in about a week or two. It is important to finish all of your antibiotics even if you feel better. After taking antibiotics, people should be re-tested after three months to be sure the infection is cured. This is particularly important if you are unsure that your partner(s) obtained treatment. But testing should still take place even if your partner has been treated. Do not have sex until you are sure both you and your partner no longer have the disease.

Cancer of the Cervix

Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women and affects the cervix. It often occurs as a result of the human papillomavirus (HPV). There are two main types of cervical cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Most people are affected by squamous cell carcinoma, which forms in the squamous cells on the surface of the cervix. Adenocarcinomas usually affect younger women and form from the mucus-producing glands of the cervix. These abnormal cells grow rapidly and can then accumulate to form a tumor. The specific cause of abnormal cells is not known, but it is linked to HPV infections. Routine Pap tests and practicing safe sex are the most effective ways to reduce your risk of cervical cancer. A vaccine for certain types of HPV is also available.

Cancer of the Ovary

Ovarian cancer occurs when normal cells in an ovary change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor may be noncancerous or cancerous. Ovarian cancer is a rare type of cancer and is often not detected until it has spread to other areas of the body. When detected early, ovarian cancer can usually be cured with no major complications. Ovarian cancer is often diagnosed during a routine pelvic exam, after a lump appears on an ultrasound image. If a lump is detected, your doctor will perform some tests to determine whether or not it is cancerous. Treatment for ovarian cancer is usually addressed with surgery to remove the tumor, often by removing the entire ovary. This procedure is called an oophorectomy, and may be combined with other procedures to remove the uterus and fallopian tubes. Other treatment options for ovarian cancer may include chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill remaining cancer cells and ensure that the disease has been removed from the body.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of symptoms that women commonly experience before their monthly menstrual period, usually going away after the period starts. About 85 percent of women suffer from at least one symptom of PMS during each menstrual cycle, although most cases are fairly mild and may not interfere with a woman's normal activities. The specific cause of PMS is not known, but it is linked to the hormone changes involved in the menstrual cycle, and can also be affected by stress and emotional problems.

While symptoms can vary for each woman, some of the common symptoms of PMS include: Breast swelling and tenderness, Fatigue, Difficulty sleeping, Bloating, Constipation or diarrhea, Joint or muscle pain, Acne, Appetite changes, Anxiety, and Depression.

Women who suspect that they have a severe case of PMS and are seeking medical attention for their condition should monitor symptoms and their severity for a few months to help their doctor accurately diagnose the condition.

Pap Smear

The Pap smear involves extracting a small sample of cells from the cervix. These cells are examined, in a lab, for abnormal cell changes. The Pap smear is used in diagnosing cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV).

An abnormal Pap smear does not necessarily indicate a condition like HPV or cervical cancer. Pap smears detect any changes within the cervical cells, and abnormal results may indicate other conditions such as inflammation, hyperkeratosis, or atypical squamous or glandular cells. False positives are also common from Pap smears, but every precaution needs to be taken to ensure your health.

You will need a follow up examination to make sure that your abnormal cell changes have been resolved. Your doctor may perform a colposcopy in order to examine the cervix more closely and take a biopsy of any abnormal tissues. The level of treatment of treatment you need will depend on the evaluation of the abnormal cell changes.

Contraception Methods

Pill

"The Pill", is a birth control method that includes a combination of an estrogen (estradiol) and a progestogen (progestin). When taken by mouth every day. Prescribed continuously or daily.

Depo Provera:

Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone) is a form of progesterone, a female hormone that prevents ovulation . Medroxyprogesterone also causes changes in your cervical mucus and uterine lining, making it harder for sperm to reach the uterus and harder for a fertilized egg to attach to the uterus. Injections are given in office every 3 months.

Mirena IUD:

Mirena is a hormone-releasing system placed in your uterus by your healthcare provider to prevent pregnancy for up to 5 years.

Mirena is a small flexible plastic T-shaped system that slowly releases a progestin hormone called levonorgestrel that is often used in birth control pills. Because Mirena releases levonorgestrel into your uterus, only small amounts of the hormone enter your blood. Mirena does not contain estrogen.

Skylar IUD:

Skyla is a hormone-releasing system placed in your uterus by your healthcare provider to prevent pregnancy for up to 3 years.

Skyla is a small, flexible plastic T-shaped system that slowly releases a progestin hormone called levonorgestrel that is often used in birth control pills. Because Skyla releases levonorgestrel into your uterus, only small amounts of the hormone enter your blood. Skyla does not contain estrogen.

Paragard IUD:

ParaGard® is a copper-releasing device that is placed in your uterus to prevent pregnancyfor up to 10 years. ParaGard® is made of white plastic in the shape of a “T.” Copper is wrapped around the stem and arms of the “T”. Two white threads are attached to the stem of the “T”.The threads are the only part of ParaGard® that you can feel when ParaGard® is in your uterus. ParaGard® and its components do not contain latex.

Nexplanon:

NEXPLANON is a small, soft, and flexible birth control implant it’s just 4 centimeters in length. Your health care provider places it discreetly under the skin on the inside of your upper arm. Provides up to 3 years of continuous pregnancy prevention.

Nuvaring

NuvaRing is a small, flexible vaginal ring used to prevent pregnancy. Inserted in the vagina every 3 weeks, take it out, then put a new one in a week later

The Patch

The patch contains two types of synthetic hormones: estrogen and progestin. These are the same types of hormones found in most birth control pills. When released into the body, these hormones prevent pregnancy by blocking the ovaries from releasing eggs.

Urine incontinence and frequency

Urodynamics for urinary incontinence are measurements taken to evaluate your bladder's function and efficiency. The actual tests done vary from person to person.

For basic urodynamic testing you will be instructed to arrive for testing with a full bladder. While you urinate into a container, the volume of urine and the rate at which the bladder empties are measured. A thin, flexible tube (catheter) is then inserted into the bladder through the urethra, and the volume of any urine remaining in the bladder is measured (post-void residual, or PVR). A slight burning sensation may occur when the catheter is inserted. The bladder may be filled with water through the catheter until you have the first urge to urinate. The amount of water in the bladder is measured at this point. Then more water may be added while you resist urinating until involuntary urination occurs.

Botox

BOTOX® is a prescription medicine that is injected into the bladder muscle and used:

* To treat overactive bladder symptoms such as a strong need to urinate with leakage or wetting accidents; urgency and frequency in adults when another type of medication (anticholinergic) does not work well enough or cannot be taken

* To treat leakage of urine (incontinence) in adults, with overactive bladder due to neurologic condition, who still have leakage or cannot tolerate the side effects after trying an anticholinergic medication

Urgent PC

Urgent PC is a non-drug, non-surgical option for overactive bladder and associated symptoms of urinary urgency, urinary frequency and urge incontinence.

The Urgent PC system delivers a specific type of neuromodulation called percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS). During treatment, a small, slim needle electrode is inserted near your ankle. The needle electrode is then connected to the battery-powered stimulator. During your 30-minute treatment, mild impulses from the stimulator travel through the needle electrode, along your leg and to the nerves in your pelvis that control bladder function. This process is also referred to as neuromodulation.

 

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